REGIO II. Our visit follows towards the east of the CŠlius. Here is the House of the Valerii ( Domus Valeriorum ), great family of sabian origin ; it was spread on a vast area on the CŠlius along the Aqua Claudia, with large gardens on the slope. The history of the Valerii started in 509 BC with Publius Valerius Poplicola who took part in the fall of the Tarquins and became second consul of the Roman Republic. Some other great domus belonged to the members of this family as that of Valerius Potitus in the sub-aventine plain.



















The visitor, after he had passed the splendid terraced gardens of the Valerii palace, discovered in a long perspective a line of gardens, the gardens of Domitia Lucilla, Marcus Aurelius’ mother. Marcus Aurelius was born on the CŠlius and it seems that, after he was ordered to move to Hadrian’s palace, he left reluctanly his mother’s gardens.

















In the centre of the picture, the Vicus Drusianus which joins the Via Appia much further below. Here is now the great domus of Constantine’s wife Fausta Flavia Maxima, the , House of Fausta who was assassinated by the emperor for some obscure reasons, which still today remain unexplained. It was a vast mansion in the shade of the Aurelian Wall. Large side wings, a very airy inside court and great gardens formed a harmonious estate.














The house of L. Calpernius Piso
( consul in 57). Famous family of the Gens Calpurnia. Ordinary consul with Nero in 57. Named curator aquarum (inspector of aqueducts) from 60 to 63, he might have been assassinated in 70 by a supporter of Vespasian. The splendid gardens of the mansion were spreading downwards towards the Aurelian Wall.






















We are now facing a true palace, the palace of Laterani. This huge estate was offered to the Pope by Constantine for him to make his private residence. Today the church of St John of Latran is standing close to where the palace was, where you can see the Castra nova Equitum Singularium, on the top of the picture. This old property had already been confiscated by Nero, until Constantine gave it to the Church. The palace burnt in 1308 .



















Close to the Laterani palace, in a hollow of the ground, the emperor Macrinus had his house built (a), the House of Macrinus, fairly modest if compared to those we saw above. At last, on the promontory formed by the CŠlius and the valley of the Decennium, a vast park named the Meadow of Laterani (b). We now pass the Laterani’s Meadow and follow our way on the CŠlius to see an important street, the Via Tusculana .











The Via Tusculana leaves behind the valley of the Decennium down right on the picture, and climbs on the East CŠlius. We first go through the Aurelian Wall by the Posterula, small gate allowing the way through. Just after the Wall, our attention is drawn by the compound of buildings forming the Castra Nova Equitum Singularium, in the centre of the picture. It is a fort which was used by the emperor’s cavalry guard, and was built under Septimius Severus. Having been built after the Castra Priora it was known as Castra Nova(new camp). On the top of the picture, next to the Aqua Claudia, the Campus CŠlimontanus (vast opened space), probably to honour Aulus Verginius Tricostus CŠlimontanus, consul during the Republic. At last, close to the Campus, the (a) House of L. Annius Verus , Marcus Aurelius’ grandfather.










Built under the Severi, The baths of Latran , ( Thermae Lateranenses ). These fairly imposing baths were built on both sides of the Via Tusculana Via Tusculana.


















Let’s cross the Aqua Claudia. Here, in the centre of the picture, stood the Castra Priora Equitum Singularium This camp might have been built by Trajan, when he created the Equites Singularesguard. At the difference to the Castra Nova Equitum Singularium, it had the traditional rectangular form, like the barracks of the security guards (Vigiles). At the bottom left, the Campus Martialis which was used for the Esquiria, kind of equine games that took normally place on the Campus Martius, but could be moved to the Campus Martialis when the Campus Martius was flooded.














A temple of Hercules Victor (a) the fašade of which opens towards the Aqua Claudia. There were not only temples erected almost everywhere in Rome, prostitution was also flourishing and numerous buildings were devoted to this activity. Here only a few steps away from Hercules temple the great brothel of the CŠlius (b) that were dealing as well as offices for the tax management of prostitutes.

















Bottom right, the Aqua Claudia going through the east CŠlius. Between the great aqueduct and the slope of the Esquiline appear two large buildings, the Tetricus’ House (a) and the Vectilian’s house and gardens (b). Vectilian’s palace was mainly used to quarter the emperor’s guard.


















In the middle of the picture, the l'Inter Duos Lucos. It is a rarely mentioned street in Roman History, but could have been close to the location of Tetricus’ house. Top, the Via Merulana that climbs on the Esquiline. At last, the myth of Helen of Troy found a place in Rome as a Tomb of Helen might have been dedicated to her (a) on the via Merulana.